The laws list
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 26Lw6 Laws
faint, young sun paradox to Fizeau method.

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F.
F
Theories of stellar evolution indicate that as stars mature on the main sequence, they grow steadily hotter and brighter; calculations suggest that at about the time of the formation of Earth, the Sun was roughly two-thirds the brightness that it is now. However, there is no geological evidence on Earth (or on Mars) for the Sun being fainter in the past. At present there is no clear resolution for this paradox.
The derived SI unit of capacitance, defined as the capacitance in a capacitor that, if charged to 1 C, has a potential difference of 1 V; thus, it has units of C/V.
The electric charge carried by one mole of electrons (or singly-ionized ions). It is equal to the product of the Avogadro constant and the (absolute value of the) charge on an electron; it is 9.648 670 x 104 C/mol.
The line integral of the electric field around a closed curve is proportional to the instantaneous time rate of change of the magnetic flux through a surface bounded by that closed curve; in differential form,
curl E = -dB/dt,
where here d/dt represents partial differentiation.
The amount of chemical change during electrolysis is proportional to the charge passed.
The charge Q equired to deposit or liberate a mass m is proportional to the charge z of the ion, the mass, and inversely proprtional to the relative ionic mass M; mathematically,
Q = F m z/M.
Faraday's first law of electromagnetic induction
An electromotive force is induced in a conductor when the magnetic field surrounding it changes.
Faraday's second law of electromagnetic induction
The magnitude of the electromotive force is proportional to the rate of change of the field.
Faraday's third law of electromagnetic induction
The sense of the induced electromotive force depends on the direction of the rate of the change of the field.
Fermat's principle; principle of least time (P. de Fermat)
The principle, put forth by P. de Fermat, that states the path taken by a ray of light between any two points in a system is always the path that takes the least time.
E. Fermi's conjecture, simplified with the phrase, "Where are they?" questioning that if the Galaxy is filled with intelligent and technological civilizations, why haven't they come to us yet? There are several possible answers to this question, but since we only have the vaguest idea what the right conditions for life and intelligence in our Galaxy, it and Fermi's paradox are no more than speculation.
fictitious force
See pseudoforce.
Fizeau method (A. Fizeau, 1851)
One of the first truly relativistic experiments, intended to measure the speed of light. Light is passed through a spinning cogwheel driven by running water, is reflected off a distant mirror, and then passed back through the spinning cogwheel. When the rate of running water (and thus the spinning of the cogwheel) is synchronized so that the returning pulses are eclipsed, c can be calculated.
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