The laws list
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K.
k
See Boltzmann constant.
kelvin; K (after Lord Kelvin, 1824-1907)
The fundamental SI unit of thermodynamic temperature defined as 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
Kelvin effect
See Thomson experiment.
Kepler's 1-2-3 law
Another formulation of Kepler's third law, which relates the mass m of the primary to a secondary's angular velocity omega and semimajor axis a:
m o= omega2 a3.
Kepler's laws (J. Kepler)
Kepler's first law
A planet orbits the Sun in an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.
Kepler's second law
A ray directed from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
Kepler's third law
The square of the period of a planet's orbit is proportional to the cube of that planet's semimajor axis; the constant of proportionality is the same for all planets.
Kerr effect (J. Kerr; 1875)
The ability of certain substances to differently refract light waves whose vibrations are in different directions when the substance is placed in an electric field.
kilogram; kg
The fundamental SI unit of mass, which is the only SI unit still maintained by a physical artifact: a platinum-iridium bar kept in the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sevres, France.
Kirchhoff's law of radiation (G.R. Kirchhoff)
The emissivity of a body is equal to its absorptance at the same temperature.
Kirchhoff's laws (G.R. Kirchhoff)
Kirchhoff's first law
An incandescent solid or gas under high pressure will produce a continuous spectrum.
Kirchhoff's second law
A low-density gas will radiate an emission-line spectrum with an underlying emission continuum.
Kirchhoff's third law
Continuous radiation viewed through a low-density gas will produce an absorption-line spectrum.
Kirchhoff's rules (G.R. Kirchhoff)
loop rule
The sum of the potential differences encountered in a round trip around any closed loop in a circuit is zero.
point rule
The sum of the currents toward a branch point is equal to the sum of the currents away from the same branch point.
Kirkwood gaps (Kirkwood)
Gaps in the asteroid belt, caused by resonance effects from Jupiter. Similar gaps exist in Saturn's rings, due to the resonance effects of shepherd moons.
Kohlrausch's law (F. Kohlrausch)
If a salt is dissolved in water, the conductivity of the solution is the sum of two values -- one depending on the positive ions and the other on the negative ions.
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